A group of RNA viruses like coronavirus causes disease in birds as well as in mammals. Whereas in the case of humans this virus causes respiratory tract infection from acute to the chronic stage. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold and more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections. They have enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, one of the largest among RNA viruses. Coronavirus structure has clubbed shape spikes on the surface which can see through electron microscopic method.

Corona viruses are large, roughly spherical particles with unique surface projections. It has number of protein molecules which is enclosed in enveloped virus. 

No. of People Affected due to COVID-19


*Source of data:-corona world meter.

Mode of Transmission

Most coronaviruses can transfer through droplets shredded by an infected person having cough, sneezing, or shortening of breath. Droplets out from infected persons are lesser in weight and can easily fall on the surfaces. In the present situation, corona spread directly, indirectly by the close contact with the people through mouth and nose secretion which include saliva, respiratory secretion or droplets these areoles release from the mouth and nose of the infected person via cough, sneeze or speak.  People who are in close contact (within 1 meter) with an infected person can catch COVID-19 when those infectious droplets get into their mouth, nose, or eyes.

To avoid contact with these droplets, it is important to stay at least 1 meter away from others, clean hands frequently, and cover the mouth with a tissue or bent elbow when sneezing or coughing. When physical distancing (standing one metro or more away) is not possible, wearing a fabric mask is an important measure to protect others. Cleaning hands frequently is also critical.


COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization.

The most common symptoms of this virus are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Whereas, aches and pain, sore throat, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, headache, loss of taste, or smell. However, rashes on the skin and discoloration of toes and fingers were the least common symptoms found in an infected person. The serious symptoms include difficulty in berating or shortness of breath.                                                           

A person having mild symptoms can check from the doctor or they can isolate themselves at home. It takes 14 days to recover but on average it can be cured within 5 to 6 days of infection which fully depends on a person’s immunity.


To prevent the spread of COVID-19 the people must be following these precautions:-

1. Clean your hands by using soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub.

2. Keep some distance from a person infected with cough or sneezing.

3. When physical distance is not possible, mask should be wear by the person.

4. Avoid touching of eyes, nose or mouth.

5. Covered nose and mouth with bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze.

6. If someone feels unwell he or she should stay at home.

7. Medical attention should be taken by the person who is infected.

In the serious mode, a person having chronic infection must go to the checker from the doctor for their current disease as well as they should check their coronavirus test. So, patients should protect themselves from the fatal stages. 



If someone feels sick they should take rest, drink plenty of fluid, and eat nutritious food. A person who is infected should stay isolated from other family members and use separate bathrooms. The surface should be cleaned with disinfectant agents. Maintain a healthy lifestyle at home and also a healthy diet to keep their loved ones protected. In the case of children, the parent should give more attention to a pandemic.

Medical treatments

The person having mild symptoms and are otherwise healthy, self-isolate, and contact your medical provider or a COVID-19 information line for advice.

Seek medical care if someone having a fever, a cough, and difficulty breathing.

Mandeep Kaur
Asst. Prof.
Department of Medical Lab Science.
TIMT, Jalandhar.

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